The asteroid belt is orbiting the Sun roughly between Mars and Jupiter. It contains large amount of small individual objects, whose size varies between dwarf planets, such as Ceres, to small particles. Asteroid belt contains a lot of important resources, that the humankind will hopefully be able to use in the future.
The asteroid belt is located in the area between Mars and Jupiter. The exact orbit varies between individual objects. On average, asteroids usually orbit the Sun two to three times farther than the Earth. Even though the amount of asteroids is large, so is the space, so the space between individual asteroids is large. Therefore, spacecraft can travel through the area safely, as collisions are improbable.
The chemical composition of the asteroids varies. Many useful elements can be found from the asteroids, such as water and very valuable minerals. It has been estimated that one asteroid might contain minerals valued in billions or trillions of dollars.
Traveling to the asteroid belt is, in solar scale, relatively easy. The good side of the asteroid belt is that many of the objects are relatively small. This means that once we have entered the asteroids, leaving them is quite easy. Asteroids could therefore be used to harvest resources and send them back to Earth or to other parts of the Solar System.
Habitats built on the asteroids would probably be very limited in size. Because the asteroids would be probably used just to mine resources from, the habitats would be temporary at most. It would be possible to build a habitats inside an asteroid. Dwarf planet, such as Ceres, could be used to build permanent settlements.
Solar energy would be usable on the asteroids. If the asteroid mining equipment would require more energy, that would be available from the Sun, fission nuclear power reactors could be used to power the mining operations.
Because there’s some distance from the Earth to the asteroids, communications wouldn’t be instant. Single message would usually take between ten and thirty minutes to go through. Therefore, mining robots that could be used on the asteroids, should be autonomous, as controlling them from the Earth would be challenging.
The resources on the asteroid belt are one of the most valuable on the Solar System, and harvesting them might be surprisingly easy. The exact composition of the asteroids varies by object, but they contain many valuable minerals and resources needed for life, such as water.
The asteroid belt might be an important place to harvest resources in the future. Permanent habitats wouldn’t probably be built on the asteroids, but resources could be nevertheless be harvested from them. If needed, larger bases could be built on Ceres, for example, where the resources could be refined and then transported back to Earth.